Action plans: the ENP action plans (or Association Agendas for Eastern partner countries)set out the partner country's agenda for political and economic reforms, with short and medium-term priorities of 3 to 5 years andreflect the country's needs and capacities, as well as its and the EU’s interests.
Agadir Agreement: Egypt Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia decided in February 2004 to set up a regional free-trade area, reinforcing South-South cooperation, with EU encouragement and support. The Agadir Agreement, as it is known, commits the parties to removing most trade tariffs between them and intensifying economic cooperation by bringing into line their legislation on standards and customs procedures. It is open to accession by other countries. An Info Centre feature here.
Anna Lindh Foundation (ALF): The ALF runs the largest and most diverse Network of civil society organizations involved in the promotion of intercultural dialogue across the Mediterranean. From its very beginning, the ALF was conceived as a Network of National Networks, established in each of the 43 countries of the Union for the Mediterranean and bringing together more than 3000 civil society organizations who share the values of the Foundation. Each Network is headed by an institution or civil society organization which participates in the development and implementation of the Foundation’s programme. Co-financed by the 43 countries of the Union for the Mediterranean and the European Commission, it is ruled by a Board of Governors composed by representatives of those countries.
Annual Programmes: They set out the amount of funding per year allocated to each of the ENPI partner states, and for the regional and interregional actions foreseen in the southern and eastern ENPI zones. They describe in detail the programmes, projects or actions to be financed with those funds in a particular country or region. "Annual" in this respect refers to the budget year and not to the duration or period of implementation of the actions.
Arab Spring and EU response: Since the first demonstrations in Tunisia in December 2010, a wave of popular discontent has shaken the Arab world, with people calling for dignity, democracy, and social justice. Despite the unexpected magnitude of these uprisings, widely known as the “Arab Spring” the EU has been quick to recognise the challenges of the political and economic transition faced by the region as a whole. It has also recognised the need to adopt a new approach to relations with its Southern neighbours. Info Centre interview and video interview.
Association Agreement: The individual agreements negotiated and concluded between the EU and a Mediterranean Partner, covering the main areas of cooperation. They replaced the trade and co-operation agreements concluded in the 1970s. In general they include political and economic provisions, financial, social and cultural cooperation. All Agreements define respect for democratic principles and fundamental Human Rights as "an essential element". The Association Agreement with each country can be found here.
AssociationCouncil: The meeting of the Ministers from the EU and a partner state to discuss the state of play in relations and the way forward. They are usually held on the sidelines of the General Affairs and External Relations Council meeting.
Black Sea Synergy (BSS): A regional initiative of the EU seeking to increase cooperation among and between the countries surrounding the Black Sea. It aims to stimulate democratic and economic reforms and create a climate more conducive to the solution of conflicts in the region. BSS focuses on concrete initiatives, prioritising transport, energy, the environment, maritime management, fisheries, migration, fight against organised crime, the information society and cultural cooperation. The EU has also established a new cross-border cooperation programme involving local authorities in the countries around the Black Sea, and supporting the activities of civil society organisations
Budget support: Involves policy dialogue, financial transfers to the national treasury of the partner country, performance assessment and capacity-building, based on partnership and mutual accountability. It should not be seen as an end in itself, but as a means of delivering better aid and achieving sustainable development objectives by fostering partner countries' ownership of development policies and reforms. It addresses the source, not just the symptoms, of under-development, and provides the strongest platform that the EU has to engage in a broad policy dialogue with its partner countries on key development issues. A relevant Info Centre interview here.
Convention on preferential rules of origin: The regional Convention on pan-Euro-Mediterranean preferential rules of origin will help develop growth and economic prosperity for the region and facilitate regional integration. It aims at replacing the current pan-Euro-Mediterranean system of cumulation of origin based on individual protocols applicable between two partner countries, with a single legal instrument in the form of a regional convention on preferential rules of origin.
Cooperation Council: The meeting of the Ministers from the EU and a partner state to discuss the state of play in relations and the way forward.
Country Reports: Prepared by the Commission at the outset of the ENP process, they assessed the political and economic situation as well as institutional and sectoral aspects in each neighbouring country, to determine when and how it was possible to deepen relations. Country Reports were submitted to the Council which decided whether to proceed to the next stage of relations. The country reports can be found by clicking here.
Covenant of Mayors: The Covenant of Mayors is the mainstream European movement involving local and regional authorities in the fight against climate change. It is based on a voluntary commitment by signatories to meet and exceed the EU 20% CO2 reduction objective through increased energy efficiency and development of renewable energy sources. It is open to local authorities in countries outside the European Union and has a number of signatories in the European Neighbourhood.
Cross Border Cooperation (CBC): Under the ENPI, the CBC component finances joint programmes bringing together regions of EU Member States and partner countries sharing a common border. It aims to promote a coherent and integrated approach to regional development, to deal with common challenges, guarantee effectiveness and security at the external borders and encourage local cooperation. CBC is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Two types of programmes are established: bilateral programmes covering a common land border (or short sea crossing), and multilateral programmes covering a sea basin.The CBC concerns Eastern Europe, the southern Caucasus and the Southern Mediterranean. More specifically Algeria, Armenia, the Palestinian Authority, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Moldova, Russia, Syria, Tunisia, and Ukraine.
Differentiation: while the underlying principles and objectives of the ENP apply to all partners, the EU’s relationship with each one is unique. The ENP provides the EU with a toolbox of instruments that allows it to adapt and differentiate its policy, in line with the different developments, ambitions and needs of its partners. The EU responds to needs, capacities and performance of each partner country, so that it allocates a greater proportion of funds where aid can have the highest impact.
Eastern Partnership (EaP): A major step towards upgrading the EU’s relations with its 6 neighbours in Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. EaP will become a policy mechanism once the European Council formally endorses proposals to this end drafted by the European Commission. The EC’s outline envisages the following key elements: a new generation of Association Agreements, far-reaching integration of the Eastern neighbours into the EU economy, easier travel to the EU for their citizens providing that security requirements are met, enhanced energy security arrangements benefitting all concerned, and increased financial assistance. Find out more on the Eastern Partnership here and find answers to questions here. EU Neighbourhood Info Centre Eap Glossary here(available in XX languages on Info Centre website, under country page).
Conference of the Regional and Local Authorities for the Eastern Partnership (CORLEAP): Decided in 2011, CORLEAP aims to bring a regional and local dimension into the Eastern Partnership (EaP) and is a platform for regular dialogue between local and regional authorities from the EU and its EaP partner countries. Involving the local and regional levels of government in the implementation of the EaP should help to strengthen local and regional self-government in the partner countries and take the Partnership closer to citizens. CORLEAP has adopted an Action Plan with political and operational dimensions.
Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum (CSF): This aims to promote contact among Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and to facilitate their contact with public authorities by providing input to and monitoring the work of ministerial meetings and the multilateralthematic platforms. The CSF also promotes dialogue, networking and exchange of experience (including on EU integration) between CSOs and between CSOs and authorities in EaP countries. Aside from CSOs from the Eastern Partners, the EU and third countries, the European Commission, the European Economic and Social Committee and representatives from international organisations/networks also participate in the Civil Society Forum.
Eastern Partnership Integration and Cooperation Programme (EaPIC): The EaPIC contributes further to the implementation of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) and is part of the renewed EU policy in the region. Its main aim is to provide increased support to institutional and sector reforms in the Eastern European partner countries, with a view to accelerating their political association and economic integration with the EU. The EaPIC targets partner countries according to the principle of 'more for more'. The initiatives supported will be tailored to the needs of each country, based on assessment of the country's progress towards deep democracy. They will address two key areas: democratic transformation and institution building; and sustainable and inclusive growth and economic development.
Eastern Partnership multilateral platforms: The EaP established four thematic platforms which set objectives and targets within the given policy area. They also serve to facilitate open discussion and to review progress and include representatives (at senior level) from government ministries and agencies, parliaments, civil society, international organisations (such as the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), international financial institutions, the private sector and economic and social partners. Participation in the projects, activities and meetings of the thematic platforms is voluntary and may include third countries on a case-by-case basis.
Flagship initiatives:Part of the multilateral track of the Eastern Partnership, the six flagship initiatives provide additional momentum, concrete substance and more visibility to the EaP. They also mobilise funding from different IFIs and investment from the private sector.
Summits (biannual): Meetings of the heads of state or government of the
Eastern Partnership (EaP), which are, in principle, held every two years. Together with the annual meetings of the ministers of foreign affairs, these meetings provide the political impetus to further shape and move the Eastern Partnership forward. The EaP was launched through a joint Declaration agreed at the Prague EaP Summit.
Euro-Med Partnership: Another term used to describe the Barcelona Process, referring to the relationship and cooperation between the EU and its partners in the Southern Mediterranean. More explanations can be found in the document named “The Euro-Med Partnership explained – 12 Q&A” (July 2008).
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD): The EBRD fosters transition to market economies and provides project financing for banks, industries and businesses, both new ventures and investments in existing companies. It also works with publicly owned companies. Each of its projects is tailored to the needs of the client and to the specific situation of the country, region and sector. The EBRD is owned by 61 countries, the European Union and the European Investment Bank.
EuropeAid Cooperation Office: Known as EuropeAid for short or by its French acronym AIDCO, this is the office that manages EU external aid programmes and ensures development assistance is delivered. The EU is the world’s biggest aid donor. EuropeAid's main mission is to implement the Commission’s external aid instruments, both those funded by the Union’s budget and the European Development Fund. A ‘Who's who’ available on the EuropeAid website demonstrates how it is organised. To ensure coherence, complementarity and coordination in implementing external assistance programmes worldwide, EuropeAid works in close collaboration with various partners.
Eastern Neighbours and Russia: The main objective of the EESC as regards the European Eastern Neighbours is to enhance relations with civil society organisations in the region and to involve them into a dialogue with both their national policy makers and the EU organised civil society.
Euromed: The EESC was invited by the 1995 Barcelona Declaration to take initiatives in “establishing links with its Mediterranean counterparts and equivalent bodies”.
Euro-Mediterranean Regional and Local Assembly (ARLEM): A consultative assembly which aims at bringing a regional and local dimension to the Euro-Mediterranean partnership. It gathers 84 Members from the EU and its 16 Mediterranean partners who are representatives of regions and local bodies holding a regional or local authority mandate. The inaugural ARLEM meeting took place on 21 January 2010 at the Pedralbes Palace in Barcelona, Spain.
EURONEST Parliamentary Assembly: The parliamentary component of the proposed Eastern Partnership. A tool to help promote democracy further and to exchange best practice among parliamentarians from partner countries and EU member states. It consists of members of the European Parliament and the parliaments of Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. After the elections in Belarus in 2010 were declared as flawed by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Belarus’s membership of Euronest was automatically suspended.
European External Action Service (EEAS): Assists the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and works in cooperation with the diplomatic services of the member states. It comprises officials from the Council General Secretariat and the Commission as well as staff seconded from member state national diplomatic services. The EEAS helps ensure the consistency and coordination of the Union's external action as well as prepare policy proposals and implement them after their approval by Council. It assists the President of the European Council and the Commission in its external relations. The delegations around the world became Union delegations under the authority of the High Representative and part of the EEAS structure.
European Investment Bank (EIB): Set up by the EU to provide investment loans and grants. Member States are the shareholders and its Board of Governors is composed of the Finance Ministers of these States.
FEMIP - EU Southern Neighbours
European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) From 1 January 2007 onwards, as part of the reform of EC assistance instruments, the MEDA (South), TACIS (East) and various other financial instruments have been replaced by a single instrument, the ENPI. The ENPI is designed to target sustainable development and approximation to EU policies and standards – supporting the agreed priorities in the ENP Action Plans (as well as the Strategic Partnership with Russia, which was previously also covered by the TACIS programme). For this budgetary period (2007-2013), approximately €12 billion in EC funding are available to support reforms in these neighbouring partner states.
European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI): Designed by the EU in 2011 when an overall substantial increase in funding for Neighbourhood partners was announced, this Instrument has a proposed budget of €18.2 billion for the period 2014-2020. In line with the principles of differentiation and "more for more", the ENI will support the strengthening of relations with partner countries and bring tangible benefits to both the EU and its partners in areas such as democracy and human rights, the rule of law, good governance, sustainable economic and social development and progressive economic integration in the EU single market. The ENI is part of an overall package of geographic and thematic instruments, worth €96,249.4 million for the period 2014-2020 (current prices) and is expected to be adopted by the European Parliament.
European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP): It was developed after the EU’s enlargement in 2004 with 10 new countries, in order to avoid the emergence of new dividing lines in Europe. Through it, the EU offers its neighbours a privileged relationship, building upon a mutual commitment to common values (democracy and human rights, rule of law, good governance, market economy principles and sustainable development). The ENP goes beyond existing relationships to offer a deeper political relationship and economic integration through reforms as a means of achieving peace, stability and economic prosperity. The level of ambition of the relationship will depend on the extent to which these values are shared. The ENP covers the EU's immediate neighbours by land or sea, namely: Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Moldova, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Ukraine. Although Russia is also an EU neighbour, relations are developed through a Strategic Partnership covering four “common spaces”. Info Centre interview with ENP Commissioner.
New ENP (more-for-more approach): The renewed ENP, as it is also known, was the culmination of an extensive review and consultation with governments and civil society organisations both within the EU and in the 16 ENP partner countries to Europe’s South and East.
European Training Foundation: The European Training Foundation is an agency of the European Union established to contribute to the development of the education and training systems of the EU partner countries. With an annual budget of €18 million, its mission is to help transition and developing countries to harness the potential of their human capital through the reform of education, training and labour market systems in the context of the EU's external relations policy. Info Centrefeature on ETF actions in Tunisia.
EU offshore protocol: Aims to complement the Barcelona Convention for the protection of the marine environment and the coastal region of the Mediterranean, signed by the EU, Italy, Greece, Spain, France, Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus, as well as 14 other non-EU Mediterranean countries, as regards exploration and exploitation activities. It covers a wide range of exploration and exploitation activities and touches upon permit requirements, the removal of abandoned or disused installations, the use and removal of harmful substances, and safety, contingency planning and monitoring.
Export Helpdesk: An online helpdesk service informing governments, exporters and trade associations in developing countries on EU import systems and procedures. The Export Helpdesk provides detailed information on the preferential arrangements in place between the EU and developing countries and also offers information on requirements to export and market goods in the EU, internal taxes applicable in every EU country and product-specific legal or market requirements, import tariffs and other import measures, as well as trade statistics and useful links. The European Union is the world's largest single market and by far the most important trading partner for developing countries.
External Action Financing Instruments: part of the Multi Annual Financial Framework (MMF), they are the instruments used to build relations with third countries. The overall objective for external action will be to ensure that the EU is also able to live up to its ambitions in promoting democracy, peace, solidarity, stability and poverty reduction and to help safeguard global public goods.
Faster and more flexible: used in reference to reducing the complexity and length of the programming process so that the relevance of the assistance is not undermined. In order to further increase the EU’s capacity to respond to unforeseen events, new mechanisms have been introduced for revision of the instruments to increase flexibility.
FEMIP: The European Investment Bank’s dedicated arm that brings together the whole range of its services provided to assist the economic development of the Mediterranean partner countries. Operational since October 2002, FEMIP is now the key player in the economic and financial partnership between the EU and the Mediterranean.
Free Trade Area (FTA): The key objective of the trade partnership is the creation of a deep Euro-Mediterranean FTA, which aims at substantially liberalising trade between both the EU and Southern Mediterranean countries (North-South), and Southern Mediterranean countries themselves (South-South).
Financial instruments: The EU supports the neighbourhood countries through different means ranging from Instruments designed for the region to more general grants, service contracts etc. for which countries, organizations and others are eligible. Some of the instruments are: Twinning , TAIEX, SIGMA and Governance Facility. More information can be found on the following links: ENP funding page, EuropeAid funding page, Info Centre guide to Cooperation Instruments and tools. Info Centre interview on the instruments.
Frontex: The European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex) promotes, coordinates and develops European border management in line with the EU fundamental rights charter applying the concept of Integrated Border Management. Frontex helps border authorities from different EU countries work together. The agency was set up in 2004 to reinforce and streamline cooperation between national border authorities and has several operational areas which are defined in the founding Frontex Regulation and a subsequent amendment.
High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR): Following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, EU leaders appointed Catherine Ashton as the HR. She conducts the Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), contributes to its development and ensures decisions are implemented. She presides over the Foreign Affairs Council and is one of the Commission’s Vice-Presidents. She ensures the consistency of external action and represents the Union for matters relating to the CFSP, conducts political dialogue with third parties and expresses the Union's position in international organisations and at international conferences. She is assisted by the European External Action Service and presides over the Union Delegations in third countries and at international organisations.
Horizon 2020 initiative: H2020 aims to de-pollute the Mediterranean by the year 2020 by tackling the sources of pollution that account for around 80 percent of the overall pollution of the Mediterranean. It is one of the key initiatives endorsed by the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) at its launch in Paris in 2008 and in order to implement and monitor actions three working groups were created: Investments for Pollution Reduction, Capacity Building and Review, Monitoring and Research. Info Centre interview and feature.
Inter-regional cooperation: Most assistance managed by EuropeAid is channeled through national and regional programmes covered by the EU’s European Neighbourhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI). However, an Inter-regional Programme (IRP) has also been established to support the ENPI southern and eastern regions. Such a programme is required because some aid activities can be managed more efficiently and flexibly at inter-regional level.
Incentives for best performers: using the more-for-more approach allows the EU to increase its support to those partners that are genuinely implementing what has been jointly agreed.
Lisbon Treaty: Entered into force on 1 December 2009 and among other developments provides for a fixed full-time President of the European Council, as well as a High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and a new European External Action Service. The Treaty provides for double majority (qualified majority) in the Council after November 2014 so that in order to be adopted an act must have the support of at least 55% of Member States. Furthermore, co-decision with the Parliament is extended to some forty fields. It also sets the number of MEPs to 751 maximum and stipulates that no member state can have fewer than 6 or more than 96 seats. It also offers a new role for national parliaments, which will have eight weeks to examine draft European legislative acts. It gives citizens right of initiative, as a million citizens can sign a petition inviting the Commission to submit a proposal on any area of EU competence.
More-for-more principle: introduced atthe last ENP review in 2010-11, this principle means that the EU will develop stronger partnerships and offer greater incentives to countries that make more progress towards democratic reform – free and fair elections, freedom of expression, of assembly and of association, judicial independence, fight against corruption and democratic control over the armed forces.
Multilateral Environment for Europe Process : An informal framework created in 1991 and overseen by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to promote environmental protection in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. With the enlargement to the East, the EU is now fostering synergy between the Process on one hand and the European Neighbourhood Policy and regional relations (e.g. in the Black Sea area) on the other.
Mutual accountability: this means that the EU is accountable to its partners for the support promised, and the partners are accountable to the EU for their own progress towards political and economic reform. ENI support takes greater account of human rights, democracy and good governance when it comes to allocating assistance.
Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF): translates the EU's political priorities for seven years into financial terms. It sets annual maximum amounts (ceilings) for EU expenditure as a whole and for the main categories of expenditure (headings).
Neighbourhood Civil Society Facility: Targeted at reinforcing the role of civil society across the Neighbourhood region it was set up to provide funding for non-state actors. €22 million is foreseen between 2011 and 2013. The Facility has three aims: 1) Strengthening capacity of civil society, through exchanges of good practice and training, to promote national reform and increase public accountability, to enable them to become stronger actors in driving reform at national level and stronger partners in the implementation of ENP objectives. 2) Strengthening non-state actors through support to regional and country projects, by supplementing the funding available through thematic programmes and instruments. 3) Promoting an inclusive approach to reforms by increasing the involvement of non-state actors in national policy dialogue and in the implementation of bilateral programmes.
National Indicative Programme (NIP): An assistance programming document that refers to developments in bilateral relations and in the country itself, as well as the pace of implementation of agreements, while it goes into detail about the goals of each priority agreed. Drafted by the European Commission in consultation with the partner country governments, Member States and other international donors and civil society organizations, following the Mid-Term Review of the Country Strategy Papers (CSP).
Country NIPs South from here.
Country NIPs East from here.
Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF): An innovative financial instrument of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) that blends loans and grants to finance investments for the Neighbourhood. Its primary objective is to kick-start key infrastructure projects that require considerable financial resources, as well as to support private sector development in the Neighbourhood region. Info Centre Interview and features from Morocco, Armenia and Moldova.
Neighbourhood Library: Developed by the EU Neighbourhood Info Centre, the Library is a user-friendly online database bringing together the key documents that guide EU relations with the ENP and ENPI partner countries. Documents can be downloaded in their original language (mainly English or French) as well as any other language versions in which they are available. Additionally, the EU Neighbourhood Info Centre has translated into the relevant local languages a selection of key documents governing regional and bilateral relations. As unofficial translations, these have no legal value (see Disclaimer). Each document has a short description in English, and links to all the language versions available.
Nuclear Safety Instrument: Now a worldwide instrument, covers projects in Eastern and Central Europe which were formerly implemented through TACIS. For the budgetary period (2007-2013), €524 million in Union funding has been earmarked to support this programme.
Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs): Form the legal basis of the EU’s relations with six of its Eastern Neighbours, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Concluded at the end of the 1990s, these agreements aim to provide a suitable framework for political dialogue with the partner countries, to support democratic reforms, to accompany their transition to a market economy and to encourage trade and investment. The PCAs also aim to provide a basis for cooperation in the legislative, economic, social, financial, scientific, civil, technological and cultural fields. The PCA with Russia also provides for the creation of the necessary conditions for the future establishment of a free trade area.
Permanent Partnership Council with Russia (PPC): the meeting of the Ministers from the EU and Russia responsible for various policy areas, held as and when necessary. Foreign Ministers, Justice and Home Affairs Ministers, Energy, Transport and Environment Ministers have met in this format so far.
Progress reports: The implementation of the mutual commitments and objectives contained in the Action Plans is regularly monitored through sub-committees with each country, dealing with those sectors or issues. The European Commission is responsible for putting together and making public these reports approximately once a year.
Policy-driven: meaning that funding allocations through the ENI are based on the key policy objectives agreed with the partners, mainly in the ENP bilateral action plans.
Regional Cooperation: The EU’s programmes for regional cooperation complement national assistance programmes, tackle challenges with a regional dimension and promote interstate co-operation on issues of mutual interest.The EU considers cooperation with its regional partners – and between the partners themselves – to be an important political objective.
More information can be found in the Regional Programme brochure (2008) and EuropeAid’s Info Notes on projects funded.
Research Framework Programmes (FP7): The main instrument at EU level aimed specifically at supporting research and development. They have two major strategic objectives: strengthening Europe’s scientific and technological base and supporting its international competitiveness and EU policies, through research cooperation among Member States and with international partners.